Brazillian sardinella landings averaged around 50,000 t – 70,000 t between 2004 and 2009. Imports into the North American market are very low. Overfishing has been occurring for decades and the stock is severely diminished. A number of species are caught as bycatch; however, for many the stock status is unknown and there is high concern over several. Although a management plan exists, the strategy and implantation are considered ineffective as many aspects are not enforced and it lacks strategies to maintain the stocks of other species caught. Impact on the habitat from purse seines is considered minimal, but stronger ecosystem based management is needed to protect the ecological role of the sardinella.
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